Pursuant to Article 20 of the Dutch National Doping Regulations, the Doping Authority investigates possible doping violations both in the Netherlands and other countries. Intelligence & Investigations is one resource deployed for this purpose and this discipline has been organised as a separate activity at the Doping Authority since 2013. An Intelligence Officer was appointed in August 2013 to develop and implement Intelligence & Investigations. The work of the Intelligence Officer includes collating information in the context of investigations of doping violations, drafting reports, conducting interviews and taking statements, organising and processing confidential data in an automated system, and the development of procedures and protocols.
The 2015 WAD Code and the ISTI1 refer explicitly to Intelligence & Investigations as a means of tackling the problem of doping. To determine the actual extent of that problem and to make informed choices about the approach and detection of doping violations, the Doping Authority has - following the lead of many investigative agencies - been working increasingly on intelligence-based lines since 2014.

Intelligence-based approach

The terms 'intelligence' and 'information' are often used interchangeably. Intelligence is the tool that allows us to implement our enforcement and investigation duties as well as possible. Obtaining intelligence requires the completion of the information process, which consists of four steps: collection, registration, working up and analysis.

All possibly relevant observations and findings from all our employees, including doping control officials and prevention staff, must be recorded in our systems. The Doping Authority sees this as 'data': raw input that needs to be worked up. Once the data has been worked up or interpreted, it becomes 'information'. If this information is then combined with other information and existing knowledge, and connections can also be made between the different types of information, this is considered to represent 'knowledge'.2 If that knowledge is then used to plan and deploy doping controls, we use the term 'intelligence-based doping controls'.
The collected information that is analysed later is also indispensable in terms of clarifying additional information requirements or as input for the other working procedures of the Doping Authority.

Much of the relevant information is collected during doping controls. All the findings of doping control officials are recorded in our systems. During 2015, the first steps were taken towards improving the coordination of the information needs of Intelligence & Investigations and the gathering of information by the doping control officials of the Doping Authority. That process is still under development. It has involved organising workshops to inform DCOs about the information needs of Intelligence & Investigations. The workshop was also used to increase awareness among DCOs about potential opportunities to acquire information.

1 International standard for testing and investigations.
2From Informatiegestuurd politiewerk-politieacademie 2010


The first steps were taken in 2015 towards the intelligence-based planning of doping controls. The Control and Intelligence & Investigations processes have been merged in the Enforcement and Investigation department, allowing for structured consultations and collaboration between planning staff and the Intelligence Officer. As a result, doping controls are focusing more on athletes than on sports.
Intelligence was also used in 2015 to deploy the available control capacity more efficiently and effectively.

Closed cases

In 2014, an investigation was launched into alleged doping (involving methylhexanamine) at the SV Spakenburg football club in the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 seasons. Although the Doping Authority concluded, in this non-analytical case, that it is more than likely that the substance was actually used, the investigation failed to generate enough information to instigate disciplinary proceedings against individuals. Because the investigation demonstrated an inadequate level of awareness in the top echelons of amateur football with respect to the possibility of doping, recommendations relating to anti-doping policies for the future were formulated for the Royal Dutch Football Association.

Information was collected or obtained, and worked up, for the various disciplinary proceedings in 2015. That information was supplied to the Doping Authority's lawyer for the purposes of the case.


More or less specific reports about possible doping were received by the Doping Authority in 2015 through its own lines of communication or its staff on 12 occasions. Three of these reports came from a sports association.
In some cases, the information was used for targeted doping controls. None of the information received in 2015 in these reports has so far led to a positive doping control and/or disciplinary proceedings. This does not mean that proceedings pursuant to those reports have been concluded or that the files can be closed. In conjunction with new or additional information, files may, against the background of relevant statutes of limitations, lead to disciplinary proceedings in the future.

The Doping Authority did not receive any reports from the Vertrouwenspunt Sport (the Confidential Phone Service of the NOC*NSF) in 2015.

The Doping Authority has received several reports about the trafficking and/or production of prohibited substances. These reports were forwarded to our partners:

Table 1: handling reports in 2015
Source of report Information or alert sent to Subject Period
Report to Doping Authority Dutch Food and Commodities Authority Contaminated supplements January 2015
Report to Doping Authority Dutch Public Health Inspectorate Trafficking in anabolic substances February 2015
Police with request for advice Dutch Public Health Inspectorate (information forwarded) Trafficking in stanozolol, winstrol and clenbuterol March 2015
WADA Dutch Public Health Inspectorate (information forwarded) Trafficking in steroids by Dutch national in Netherlands May 2015
Police with request for advice Dutch Public Health Inspectorate (information forwarded) Production and trafficking in fake medicines and prohibited substances May 2015 and after
Police with advice question and for expertise Dutch Public Health Inspectorate (report) Tour de France and possible doping infringements May 2015
ADD (Anti-Doping Danmark) Dutch Public Health Inspectorate and Dutch Food and Commodities Authority Trafficking in prohibited substances June 2015
Report to Doping Authority Dutch Public Health Inspectorate Trafficking in clenbuterol October 2015

Other information

In 2015, the Doping Authority twice supplied a Dutch investigative organisation with information obtained during ongoing investigations by the Doping Authority. In one of those cases, the ongoing investigation was initiated in response to a report about doping.

The Doping Authority supplied information on one occasion in 2015 to a foreign anti-doping organisation about a possible doping infringement by a foreign athlete.

Collaboration agreements

The Doping Authority entered into agreements with UKAD, UEFA and NADA Deutschland in 2015 for the purposes of international collaboration.